提交到turnitin查重系统中有很大部分是essay。本站整理了一些如何写essay的系列文章。这篇文章主要是讲解如何写好类比型或者分类型的论文（Compare and Contrast Essay）。
这一类的论文是咱们在学习过程中接触最多的了。在比较类的Essay中，主要写的是两种事物或概念的相同之处；而在对比类Essay中，主要写的是它们的不同点。一般我们都会看见老师给我们出的题目都是“Please compare and contrast XXX and XXX”, 所以是相同点和相似点结合在一起，因此在讨论这一类文章的时候，我们就要把比较内容的相同点和相似点都要列出来。
例：Write an essay comparing the look of 汪峰 and 白岩松.
1. 这一类的文章主要有两种写法：第一种是把相同点和不同点分开写。例如：Part1 – 分析A和B的相同点；Part 2 – 分析A和B的不同点。 第二种是把论点拎出来写，例如：Argument 1 – 分析A在这个论点的表现，同时也分析B在这个论点的表现，把两者再比较得出结论；Argument 2 – 分析A在这个论点的表现，同时也分析B在这个论点的表现，把两者再比较得出结论…..（以此类推）两种写法没有谁对谁错，主要还是看哪一种能更好地诠释你的主题。
The purpose of a compare and contrast essay is to analyze the differences and/or the similarities of two distinct subjects. A good compare/contrast essay doesn’t only point out how the subjects are similar or different (or even both!). It uses those points to make a meaningful argument about the subjects. While it can be a little intimidating to approach this type of essay at first, with a little work and practice, you can write a great compare-and-contrast essay!
Pick two subjects that can be compared and contrasted. The first step to writing a successful compare and contrast essay is to pick two subjects that are different enough to be compared. There are several things to consider when choosing your subjects:
- You could pick two subjects that are in the same “category” but have differences that are significant in some way. For example, you could choose “homemade pizza vs. frozen grocery store pizza.”
- You could pick two subjects that don’t appear to have anything in common but that have a surprising similarity. For example, you could choose to compare bats and whales. (One is tiny and flies, and the other is huge and swims, but they both use sonar to hunt.)
- You could pick two subjects that might appear to be the same but are actually different. For example, you could choose "The Hunger Games movie vs. the book."
Make sure that your subjects can be discussed in a meaningful way. “Meaningful” comparisons and contrasts do more than simply point out that “Topic A and Topic B are both similar and different.” A good compare and contrast essay will help your readers understand why it’s useful or interesting to put these two subjects together.
- For example, ask yourself: What can we learn by thinking about “The Hunger Games” and “Battle Royale” together that we would miss out on if we thought about them separately?
- It can be helpful to consider the “So what?” question when deciding whether your subjects have meaningful comparisons and contrasts to be made. If you say “The Hunger Games and Battle Royale are both similar and different,” and your friend asked you “So what?” what would your answer be? In other words, why bother putting these two things together?
Brainstorm your topic. You probably won’t be able to jump straight from deciding on your topic to having a thesis, and that’s okay. Take a little time to brainstorm about how your chosen subjects are similar and different. This will help you see which points are the major ones you want to focus on, and can help guide you when you formulate your thesis.
- A “Venn diagram” can often be helpful when brainstorming. This set of overlapping circles can help you visualize where your subjects are similar and where they differ. In the outer edges of the circle, you write what is different; in the overlapping middle area, you write what’s similar.
- You can also just draw out a list of all of the qualities or characteristics of each subject. Once you’ve done that, start looking through the list for traits that both subjects share. Major points of difference are also good to note.
Consider your main points. You won’t be able to provide a list of every single way in which your subjects are similar and/or different in your essay. (And that’s not the goal, anyway.) Instead, choose a few points that seem to be particularly important.
- For example, if you are comparing and contrasting cats and dogs, you might notice that both are common household pets, fairly easy to adopt, and don’t usually have many special care needs. These are points of comparison (ways they are similar).
- You might also note that cats are usually more independent than dogs, that dogs may not provoke allergies as much as cats do, and that cats don’t get as big as many dogs do. These are points of contrast (ways they are different).
- These points of contrast can often be good places to start thinking about your thesis, or argument. Do these differences make one animal a superior type of pet? Or a better pet choice for a specific living situation (e.g., an apartment, a farm, etc.)?
Develop your thesis. There are many directions a compare-and-contrast thesis can take, but it should always make an argument that explains why it’s useful to put these two subjects together in the first place. For example:
- Show readers why one subject is more desirable than the other. Example: "Cats are better pets than dogs because they require less maintenance, are more independent, and are more adaptable."
- Help readers make a meaningful comparison between two subjects. Example: "New York City and San Francisco are both great cities for young professionals, but they differ in terms of their job opportunities, social environment, and living conditions."
- Show readers how two subjects are similar and different. Example: "While both The Catcher in the Rye and To Kill a Mockingbird explore the themes of loss of innocence and the deep bond between siblings, To Kill a Mockingbird is more concerned with racism while The Catcher in the Rye focuses on the prejudices of class."
- In middle school and high school, the standard format for essays is often the “5-paragraph form,” with an introduction, 3 body paragraphs, and a conclusion. If your teacher recommends this form, go for it. However, you should be aware that especially in college, teachers and professors tend to want students to break out of this limited mode. Don’t get so locked into having “three main points” that you forget to fully explore your topic.
想了解更多比较和对比类论文的写法请点击 How to write a compare and contrast essay